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Organization of the file system

the directory is created with the relevant element with regard behalf compares some file name (the file is not required to even exist at the time of the creation of a symbolic connection). For symbolic link might create a separate index node, and even scanned a single block of data to store potentially long file name. Each of these methods has its downsides. In the case of rigid raises the need to support the meter reference to a file for the correct implementation of the operation delete a file. For example, in Unix, this count is one of the attributes stored in the index node. Deleting a file a user reduces the number of references to the file on 1. Actual removal of the file happens when the number of references to the file becomes equal to 0. In the case of a symbolic link such a problem does not arise since only the real owner is a link to the index file node. If the owner removes the file, it is destroyed, and the attempts of other users to work with him away in failure. Removing the symbolic link has no effect on file. The problem of organizing a symbolic connection velocity potential access to the file. The file contains a symbolic link path to a file containing a list of nested directories for passing on which needed a few hits to the disk. Symbolic Link has the advantage that it can be used to access files uniformnogo remote computers, for example, if added to the road network address of the remote machine. Cyclic Earl structure more flexible than a simple tree, but work with it requires great accuracy. One of the major problems with the structure of the cyclic column-assurance that the cycle does not arise in finding a file. As of now, there are several ways to file, the program can search to find his file on the disk several times. The simplest practical solution to this problem is to limit the number of directories in the search. Complete removal cycles rather laborious procedure performed by special utilities and associated with multiple trace file system directories. Cooperation processes when working with files. When different users work together on a project, they often need to split the files. Shared file is shared resource. As in the case of any shared resource, processes must synchronize their access to shared files, directories, to avoid deadlocks, discrimination individual processes and reduce system performance. For example, if several users simultaneously editing a file and not taken special measures, the result will be unpredictable and depends on the order in which records were implemented in the file. Between the two operations read the same process, another process can modify data, which is unacceptable for many applications. The simplest solution to this problem be allowed to seize one of the file that is blocking access to shared file other
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